Things To Know About Oliguria
Oliguria (also referred to as hypouresis) is the medical term for a decreased output of urine than expected. The term oliguria is derived from oligo meaning "small or little," and uria meaning "urine". In adults, it is considered to be a urinary output of fewer than 400 milliliters (i.e. below 13.5 ounces) over 24 hours. Oliguria in children can be defined as the urinary output below 0.5 ml/kg/h and in infants, it is the urinary output less than 1ml/kg/h. This shall not be confused with the term “anuria” which refers to the complete absence or less than 50 milliliters (about 1.7 ounces) of urine passed urine in 24 hours. Oliguria is much more common than anuria. This condition occurs as a result of dehydration, blockage, or intake of certain medications.
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The common signs of people suffering from oliguria condition are when they start to urinate less frequently or pass only a smaller amount of urine than usual and their urine color is dark-colored. Depending on the cause of the less urine output, individuals might experience other symptoms as well.
Causes Of Oliguria:
Oliguria can have several underlying reasons including:
(a) Dehydration - It is the most common cause of oliguria wherein the body is low in its overall fluid or water content. Generally, it occurs because the body is losing water more than it is taking in. This can happen when a person has excessive sweating on hot days or while carrying out some physical activities. It can also be caused because of the presence of a stomach bug that causes diarrhea or vomiting.
(b) Blockage – The urine output can significantly be reduced because of physical obstruction in the urinary tract that limits the urine flow such as the presence of kidney stones. These blockages can occur anywhere along the urinary tract, including the kidneys and ureters (tubes that propel urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder).
(c) Medications - Some medications can affect the body’s ability to produce or release urine.
Anticholinergics: These drugs can block the brain signals sent by acetylcholine (a chemical messenger) to trigger abnormal contraction of the urinary bladder in case of an overactive bladder.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These help to reduce swelling or relieve pain. They can inhibit prostaglandins and reduce the excretion of water and sodium in the urine.
Diuretics: Diuretics are the substances that prompt the body to release more urine. When used in excess or for a prolonged duration, these can lead to dehydration or kidney injury, or other health issues. These work by releasing sodium and chlorine in urine from the body which in turn draws a lot of water from the body, resulting in a decline in urine production.
(d) Burns and other serious injuries: Burns can cause dehydration and produce less amount of urine than usual. Some other traumatic situations such as hemorrhage or excessive blood loss, anaphylactic shock caused by an allergy, and septic shock after undergoing surgery or having infection can also lead to low urine output.
Oliguria is treated on basis of several different factors, including the overall health of the individual, the likely cause of the decrease in urine, and whether there has been any injury to the kidney.
The first best way to treat oliguria is by increasing the amount of fluid intake. This can often be done by drinking more water or rehydration solutions that include electrolytes. In cases of severe dehydration, the Best Urologist in Indore might recommend a hospital stay to get intravenous (IV) fluids. Moreover, with increasing fluids in the body, small kidney stones can be passed into the urine, thereby relieving the blockage. If the stones are large, the healthcare provider may recommend shock wave lithotripsy to blast and remove them or cystoscopy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
If rehydration is not helping or if other underlying medical issues are affecting the hydration levels or urine output, then medications are prescribed to treat oliguria. These include:
Antimicrobials: These help treat infections associated with severe diarrhea or vomiting.
Diuretics: In small doses, these medications can help increase urine output by small amounts.
Renal-dose dopamine: This is rarely used medication for oliguria treatment. It is known to prevent kidney injury by expanding arteries in the kidney and increasing urine output.
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